Your browser does not support script
Formation Metals Inc. Formation Metals Inc.

Cobalt News

Formation Metals Inc.

Investor Info

Show printable version of 'Cobalt News' item in a New Window


Please note that by clicking on any of the links provided below you will be entering websites directly or indirectly maintained by a third party and that you do so at your own risk. The link to the External Websites are provided for convenience purposes only. By clicking the links below you acknowledge and agree that Formation Metals Inc. is not responsible for, and hence does not accept or assume any responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the content, or the operation of, the External Website and/or any linked sites.

 January 21, 2016
Votorantim Metais Plans Production Stoppage at Nickel, Cobalt Plant
    Publisher: Cobalt Investing News
    Author: Charlotte McLeod


Votorantim Metais Plans Production Stoppage at Nickel, Cobalt Plant

Metal Bulletin reported that Votorantim Metais has moved forward a production stoppage at it Brazil-based nickel and cobalt plant which will take 1,400 tonnes of yearly cobalt production offline.

As quoted in the market news:

'Votorantim Metais [...] is conducting a stoppage for preventive and corrective maintenance of equipment at its units in Niquelandia (the Brazilian state of Goiás) and São Miguel Paulista (in the state of São Paulo),' a company spokesman said.

Click here to read the full Metal Bulletin report.

 January 18, 2016
Tech Giants Accused by Amnesty of Using Cobalt Dug by Children
    Publisher: BloombergBusiness
    Author: Thomas Wilson


Bloomberg Business - January 18, 2016
Excerpts from the Bloomberg Article

Tech Giants Accused by Amnesty of Using Cobalt Dug by Children

Chinese companies that buy cobalt from the Democratic Republic of Congo and supply mobile-phone and laptop makers such as Apple Inc. and Samsung Electronics Co. aren't fully checking their suppliers and may be acquiring the mineral from mines that rely on child labor, Amnesty International said.

Congo, the world's biggest cobalt producer, mined an estimated 67,735 metric tons of the material last year. While the majority was from industrial operations, as much as 20 percent may come from artisanal mines in the southeastern Katanga region, where adults and children work in dangerous conditions, Amnesty and African Resources Watch, a Congolese non-governmental organization, said Tuesday in a report.

Click here to read the full Bloomberg article

 December 16, 2015
Cobalt Outlook 2016: Near-term Deficit Still Expected
    Publisher: Cobalt Investing News
    Author: Charlotte McLeod


Cobalt Outlook 2016: Near-term Deficit Still Expected

2014 was undoubtedly the year of Tesla Motors (NASDAQ:TSLA) for the lithium and graphite sectors, and cobalt was no exception. However, in 2015 market participants were forced to look beyond the hype.

That's largely because despite excitement about lithium-ion battery megafactories from Tesla and other major companies, 2015 didn't bring as much cobalt market tightness as was expected. Indeed, this time last year, some market participants were calling for a cobalt deficit in 2015 --- as yet, that deficit has not emerged.

To learn more about how cobalt fared in 2015, as well as what the cobalt outlook for 2016 is like, the Investing News Network (INN) got in touch with experts, including Andrew Miller of Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, and Chris Berry of House Mountain Partners and the Disruptive Discoveries Journal. Here's what they had to say.

2015 cobalt themes: Market tightness overestimated

Speaking about cobalt in 2015, Miller began by stating that heading into the year, Benchmark expected to see the cobalt space gain attention from the battery sector. That's because "in many ways the cobalt industry has the most fragile supply structure of all battery raw materials."

However, while market participants have certainly begun to recognize cobalt's importance to the battery supply chain, "deals to supply the upcoming battery capacity expansions have been slower than initially thought." The underperformance mentioned above was the result --- "supply wasn't as tight as expected, and this saw prices continue to fall," said Miller.

In a late November article, Metal Bulletin gives a good idea of exactly how much the cobalt price has fallen this year. In it, the news outlet states that while the cobalt price was "holding up quite well" until October --- particularly compared to copper and nickel, its compatriots --- it then "fell off a cliff." At the time the article was written, low-grade cobalt was at a 35-month low of $10.35 to $11.40 per pound, down 25 percent since the summer.

In conversation with INN, Robin Goad, president and CEO of Fortune Minerals (TSX:FT), said that the dramatic price drop was caused by "Chinese liquidity pressures and new artisanal cobalt production in the Democratic Republic of the Congo."

That said, while cobalt demand wasn't stoked as much as some had hoped, 2015 did bring supply-side issues that could help to restore market balance and stoke prices moving forward.

On that note, Berry highlighted Glencore's (LSE:GLEN) plan to cut 400,000 tonnes of copper production from its African operations. That "will also take roughly 15 percent of global cobalt production offline," he said. Similarly, Miller highlighted that announcement from Glencore as something that the cobalt industry "has been following closely."

That said, Miller said his firm sees Eurasian Natural Resources' plans to supply the battery sector as "the most interesting piece of news" in the cobalt space in 2015. "This is the first of the existing majors seeking to address what could be a major bottleneck in the coming years," he said.

2016 cobalt outlook: Deficit in store?

While 2015 was a little underwhelming for cobalt market participants, it appears that 2016 may bring the market tightness expected last year, and along with it, a higher cobalt price.

Case in point: Berry said that demand for cobalt should "continue to grow well above global GDP" in 2016, while supply should continue to shrink. Catalysts for that will be "more copper and nickel production coming offline where cobalt is a by-product." All in all, these factors "should support higher cobalt prices."

Berry also pointed out that "cobalt doesn't have a very deep 'bench,'" meaning that companies are not waiting in the wings to meet the "looming supply requirements" expected to emerge in the next few years. He also encouraged investors to remember that a lot of cobalt is mined in Africa, where geopolitical issues --- another threat to supply --- are common.

Laying it out even more directly, Miller said that Benchmark "expect[s] supply to move into deficit in 2016, particularly as demand from the battery sector increases." He added, "we think this will see a rebound in prices throughout the year."

Execs at cobalt-focused companies appear to agree. Commenting to INN, Goad and Global Cobalt's (TSXV:GCO) Mitchell Smith both said that they see cobalt demand growing next year as supply becomes more precarious.

For his part, Goad commented that while the cobalt market "has been in surplus over the past few years ... the market is transitioning to balance." Echoing Miller, he said that the space is "forecast to be in a production deficit by 2016 or 2017," also stating that this deficit "will extend into the foreseeable future."

Meanwhile, Smith noted that "according to various market experts, the depressed cobalt prices at present are unlikely to persist into next year as the market expects to recover." In particular, he pointed to the "overall positive outlook for increased demand from the battery sector" as a likely driver of that recovery.

Investor takeaway

The cobalt outlook for 2016 is certainly positive, but investors who remember the optimism of 2015 may be wary. After all, the excitement seen this year has not brought higher cobalt prices, and --- as Goad and Smith highlighted --- has not made it easier for cobalt-focused companies to raise money to move their projects forward.

So what will make 2016 a different story? Based on the comments from the market watchers above, it seems that it will be key to watch whether the predicted deficit actually emerges next year. Whatever the case, it definitely looks set to be an interesting year for cobalt.

To read the full article please click here to visit

 November 24, 2015
Glencore's Cobalt Production Cuts Have Not Yet Affected Market Surplus
    Publisher: Argus Media


Excerpts from the Argus Media Article

The loss of 3,000t of production from Glencore's Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) subsidiary Katanga Mining, which shut in October for 18 months, has meant that its long-term customer will have to look to other sources for chemical grade cobalt units once deliveries under the current contract end.

With no shortage of available supply, Glencore's cut has to be followed by reduced production to balance the market, industry sources said.

Glencore's copper and cobalt production cuts have not been followed by other producers. If anything the cuts appear to have reduced the urgency for other mining firms to take similar actions. Katanga deliveries to customers under contract will continue until the end of 2016, and there looks to be no shortage of available supply to replace the lost production.


Despite a positive outlook of increased demand from the battery sector, cobalt prices have been trading much lower than previously anticipated. According to market participants, the depressed cobalt prices seen at present are unlikely to persist into next year as the market expects to recover. The major driving force next year and in the years to come is expected to be lithium-ion batteries, with car maker Tesla's new Gigafactory forecast to push cobalt demand beyond 100,000t/yr by 2020. Tesla's Powerwall concept seeks to move the market beyond automotive into home energy storage. Battery chemicals alone are expected to add between 5,000t/yr and 10,000t/yr of cobalt demand in the medium term.

Lithium-ion is not always the material of choice in the car making industry, but cobalt has the advantage of being used both in lithium-ion and the alternative lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries.

In Europe the government-driven switch to electric and hybrid buses and increased consumer adoption of electric and hybrid passenger cars are benefiting these markets. NMC batteries are favoured for electric buses and demand for these, together with lithium-ion, comes from electric vehicles, while in hybric cars lithium-iron-phosphate batteries are a competitor.

In China production of electric vehicles has risen 300% in the year to date, helped by the government's new policy to reduce urban emissions. South Korea's Samsung last month opened a new battery plant in Xi'an, Shaanxi province, to manufacture lithium ion-batteries for approximately 40,000 electric vehicles a year. To read more, Sign up for a Free Trial Argus Media Membership

 September 23, 2015
Tesla Battery Push Spurs ENRC Owner to Target Cobalt Mining
    Publisher: Bloomberg
    Author: Yuliya Fedorinova


Bloomberg News - September 23, 2015
Excerpts from the Bloomberg Article

Tesla Battery Push Spurs ENRC Owner to Target Cobalt Mining

Eurasian Resources Group (ERG) plans to use a $2.2 billion project in the Democratic Republic of Congo to become the world's top cobalt producer and tap growing demand for batteries from companies including Tesla Motors Inc.

ERG CEO, Benedikt Sobatka sees the company becoming the largest cobalt producer in the world once full capacity is reached.

Mr. Sobatka said that cobalt prices should advance "significantly" in the next two years as demand for the metal used in rechargeable batteries increases.

The battery market is expanding as more consumers turn to electric and hybrid cars and look to store renewable energy to power appliances when there's little wind or sunshine. Daimler AG and Tesla said they plan to sell batteries storing energy to homeowners and businesses.

Click here to read the full Bloomberg article

 September 08, 2015
Potential Impact of Glencore's Decision to Review its Katanga Mining Operation
    Publisher: Roskill Information Services
    Author: Jack Bedder


Katanga Mining has suspended production of both copper and cobalt for up to 18 months as part of a business review of its operations and expenses amid a challenging environment for commodities

Jack Bedder Senior Analyst for Cobalt at Roskill provides comment...

"On Sunday, it was announced that Glencore's Katanga Mining (KML) had started a review of its business, including operations and expenses, in light of the challenging environment for commodities. The review could result in up to 18 months of suspended production. Considerable media attention has been paid to the potential impact on global copper production but what will be the effect on the cobalt market?"

KML operates a major mine complex in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), producing refined copper and cobalt. Its two key mine sites are the KTO underground mine (60Mt grading 4.65% Cu and 0.58% Co) and the KOV open-pit/underground mine (111Mt grading 5.37% Cu and 0.41% Co).

KML's Kamoto concentrator consists of four milling and flotation sections with a design capacity of 7.5Mtpy. The concentrator processes ore from the KTO mine. KML's Luilu solvent extraction/electro-winning plant processes sulphide and oxide concentrate from the Kamoto concentrator. Constructed in 1960 and expanded in 1972, this facility is capable of producing 175ktpy of copper and 8ktpy of cobalt metal. Cobalt metal production totalled 2.8kt in 2014, a 21% increase on 2013 levels, and 1.8kt in H1 2015, a 79% increase on H1 2014 levels, owing to increased grades and volume, together with improved recovery rates. Material is shipped to Europe, Asia and the USA.

The temporary closure of KML could have a considerable impact on the market as the operation is an important source of cobalt hydroxide and metal to the international market. With reduced output also expected from ENRC's Chambishi smelter in Zambia in the future, suspension of KML's operations could compound fears over African cobalt supply.

This development comes at a time of falling cobalt prices and may serve as the catalyst that many are waiting for to reverse this trend. Cobalt prices have fallen over the past year. Prices as reported by Metal Bulletin averaged US$15.08/lb in Q3 2014, US$14.21/lb in Q4 2014 and US$13.93/lb in Q1 2015. Prices in Q2 averaged US$13.86/lb, just below Q1 levels, and will average around US$13.00/lb in Q3."

Roskill will be factoring the likely impact of this news on the cobalt market outlook in its forthcoming Q3 cobalt briefing. This quarterly service, launched in 2015, provides insiders, observers and investors with the latest news, data, analysis and short-term supply/demand/price forecasts, enabling faster decision making.

To receive a sample copy please contact Roskill directly or, Sign up for a full subscription on the Roskill website.

 August 10, 2015
Thinking Outside the Commodity Box: Benchmark's Investment Primer for Lithium, Cobalt and Graphite
    Publisher: Streetwise Reports - The Gold Report
    Author: Brian Sylvester


It's often difficult to understand the global markets for critical minerals so The Gold Report narrowed it to three---lithium, cobalt and graphite---and brought in Simon Moores, managing director of London-based Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, and the firm's analyst, Andrew Miller, to provide insight into minerals that they say need to shed their labels as traditional commodities and embrace their future as niche, raw-material solutions for a growing list of technology manufacturers. As Benchmark prepares to embark on its World Tour, Moores and Miller discuss supply chain visibility and the impact of disruptive technologies on these markets, as well as companies seeking to leverage lithium, cobalt and graphite into investable business models that will lure investors with a long-term outlook.

The Gold Report: In a recent Benchmark Mineral Intelligence report, "Mineral Supply Chain Visibility: Impact of Disruptive Technologies on Critical Raw Materials," you make the case that supply chain visibility will become increasingly important in the critical minerals space. Please briefly explain why.

Simon Moores: We've noticed that during the rare earth element bubble in 2010--2011, people didn't know what these niche minerals that go into everyday critical technologies were or where they were sourced. We've seen that knowledge grow in the last five years and downstream companies like Apple Inc. (AAPL:NASDAQ) and Tesla Motors Inc. (TSLA:NASDAQ) are now aware of what the raw materials are and where they come from.

Awareness in these niche minerals of growing importance, such as graphite, lithium and cobalt, is now occurring throughout the supply chain and not just in the upstream portion with the mining or processing companies. The downstream companies are paying attention and they buy the raw materials to manufacture these disruptive technologies. Supply chain visibility is rising.

Andrew Miller: Supply chains are going to become increasingly important. As these new technologies rapidly develop, both traditional industrial end users and newer high-tech buyers of these raw materials need to know more about the global supply pattern---factors that can impact their business. It's basic risk management in today's world.

They can't just rely on their traders or distributors for intelligence. End users are now aware of the need for a more global, independent picture on supply, demand and prices.

TGR: Is that happening?

SM: We haven't seen companies completely change their raw materials buying patterns yet, but some are preparing for it. In the U.S., the Conflict Minerals Act was the first time specific political restrictions have been put in place for these minerals in the West for ethical reasons. Europe will introduce similar legislation early next year.

The industry will have to start thinking about buying from reputable suppliers that meet certain standards. That means that end users may no longer opt for the lowest-cost source of raw materials from places like China and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) if producers in these regions don't fall in line with environmental or ethical rules. And that is key. It's not just about price anymore. It means people will start paying a premium for more ethically sourced raw materials.

TGR: In the same Benchmark report you suggest that disruptive technologies are the most important new market for critical minerals. What are disruptive technologies and what are two or three specific ways these technologies are changing the markets for critical minerals?

AM: Disruptive technologies are completely new markets that are creating new value chains, products such as smartphones, electric vehicles and different types of energy storage. Growth in these new markets are affecting not only their own supply chains, but also those of existing industrial markets that rely on the same raw materials.

In the longer term there will be a real need for new critical mineral supply to come onto the market. In many cases that's also going to require suppliers to become more flexible. It's not just the production out of the ground that's going to have to increase; the refining and processing capabilities have to improve and expand too. The material required by traditional critical minerals markets is quite different and more tailored from the majority of product that is needed in these new high-tech spaces.

TGR: So companies developing these critical minerals projects not only have to get these elements out of the ground, but then they also have to process them in such a way to meet the specific requirements of these new end users, which can vary greatly.

SM: That's right. The grades that the critical minerals sector has traditionally served up and that have become industry standards over the past few decades are now changing, and that's why critical minerals like lithium, cobalt and graphite aren't really commodities. They can't be mined out of the ground in large volumes and directly used; they are tailored specifically for the end user.

With commodities it is more of a logistics game, with critical minerals is a processing game---this is where they are fundamentally different.

TGR: And that is often without any firm commitment from the end users. Is the traditional offtake deal dead in the critical minerals market, at least in specific cases?

SM: Offtake deals are familiar financing methods for resource companies, but it's difficult to apply that model to these minerals, which are specialist products. Critical minerals are not usually traded in the volumes that offtake contracts often serve, like, for example, iron ore. If these markets grow to reach huge volumes in the future, perhaps then they will be traded in the same way as large-scale commodities.

Excerpt from Article on Cobalt

TGR: Cobalt is a component in lithium-ion cathode for batteries. Tell us about the cobalt market.

AM: Cobalt is similar to the lithium market in the sense that you have one or two large producers that dominate supply. The DRC is where the majority of the raw material is produced. Outside of the DRC, cobalt is produced in a number of countries, but all of that production is limited and there's little capacity for short-term expansion. The key issue with cobalt is security of supply, particularly with the increased demand from the battery sector. Over the past five years or so, cobalt demand from the battery sector has increased threefold, and 2014 battery demand made up 45--50% of the total market.

TGR: Cobalt prices have slipped some over the summer. Is that the beginning of a downturn in cobalt prices or a summer dip?

AM: It is more of a short-term trend than anything. When we look at the macro dynamics for the cobalt market, supply is tightening. In H2/15 and certainly into next year we're going to see the market move into deficit, and that will obviously prompt rising prices.

TGR: What are some companies that are developing cobalt projects?

AM: There are some companies in North America where there is an obvious need for alternative resources. We follow companies like Fortune Minerals Ltd. (FT:TSX), which is advancing the NICO gold-cobalt-bismuth-copper project in Canada's Northwest Territories, Formation Metals Inc. (FCO:TSX), which owns the Idaho cobalt project near Salmon, Idaho, and Global Cobalt Corp. (GCO:TSX.V).

Unlike lithium and graphite, there is a lack of new exploration for cobalt resources - which tend to be an associated mineral rather than a primary target. This could be a problem for the industry in the future.

TGR: How far away is Formation from producing a product end users can get a closer look at?

AM: There's no new supply expected in the market over the next 12 months or so. These companies are trying to raise investment capital to further develop their projects. It will take time and may take further price shocks to get the attention of investors.

Excerpt from Article on Benchmark Minerals World Tour starting in London on Sept. 11

TGR: You're about to embark on the Benchmark Mineral Intelligence World Tour. Tell us about it.

SM: We will offer a series of free seminars that examine the battery supply chain and the raw materials that fuel it. We start our World Tour in London on Sept. 11 and continue in New York, Toronto, Vancouver, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Sydney and Melbourne. These are the world's mining investment hubs and places that have shown interest in the battery supply chain. People can find more information by visiting Benchmark Minerals and clicking the World Tour tab.

TGR: Please share one tidbit for investors to keep in mind as they conduct their due diligence on critical minerals equities.

SM: Don't treat critical minerals like commodities. The basic process of analyzing commodities has relevance to specialist minerals but they're not entirely the same. Critical minerals are niche products at this stage that require a long-term outlook. It is no surprise that the people that invested in the critical minerals supply chain in the past---namely Japanese and Korean companies---are long-term thinkers. These companies now control the majority of these supply chains. A longer-term way of thinking is crucial.

TGR: Thank you for talking with us today, Simon and Andrew.

Simon Moores is managing director of Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, an online publishing and consultancy business specializing in critical minerals and metals, disruptive technology and emerging markets. Moores has also worked as a business journalist focusing on non-metallic minerals such as lithium, graphite, rare earths, potash, TiO2 pigment and feedstocks such as rutile and ilmenite.

Andrew Miller is an analyst at Benchmark Mineral Intelligence and specializes in the first-hand data collection of niche minerals and metals, especially graphite, lithium, cobalt and fluorspar. Miller's primary role at Benchmark is price collection for these industries and creating and maintaining indices including Benchmark's new Graphite Price Index.

To read the full interview on the Gold Report website please click here

 July 21, 2015
Cobalt's Hi-Tech Blueprint
    Publisher: Benchmark Minerals
    Author: Andrew Miller


Benchmark Magazine has published issue #2 as a complimentary download:
Europe's Conflict Crackdown & Cobalt's Techtonic Shift

The quarterly publication is part of an annual Membership that specialises in critical minerals and metals, disruptive technology and emerging markets.

Excerpt from the Magazine

During the past five years, the battery sector's hunger for cobalt has increased three-fold and prices have reacted in a volatile way. New battery megafactories using cobalt-based cathodes are being built, yet the industry is still divided on how far lithium-ion batteries can really go. With these emerging hi-tech markets threatening to unbalance an industry that relies on the Democratic Republic of Congo for over half of its raw material, the need for new supply is rising. In this excerpt from Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, "Europe's Conflict Crackdown", Andrew Miller investigates cobalt's techtonic shift sending cobalt critical due to the rise in the demand for lithium ion batteries and whether the industry can handle another price shock that could potentially derail its role in the lithium-ion revolution.

Formation Metals Inc. Idaho Cobalt Project is mentioned in the 8 page article, "Cobalt's Hi-Tech Bluebrint" (page 5 in the link to the article below).

Editorial - Cobalt's Hi-Tech Blueprint

For queries and further information please contact: or
 June 23, 2015
Annual General Meeting - Thursday, June 25, 2015
    Publisher: Formation Metals

- You Are Invited -

Management of Formation Metals extends this
invitation for you to attend the Company's

2015 Annual General Meeting

11:00 am, Thursday, June 25, 2015
The Vancouver Club (SFU Room)
915 West Hastings St.,
Vancouver, B.C.

After the formal business meeting has concluded,
Paul Farquharson, President and CEO,
will be giving a corporate update and presentation.

Please join us this coming Thursday,
June 25th at 11:00 am.

If you would like further information please contact us.
 June 11, 2015
Why Banks, Trading Houses and Funds Have Set Their Sights on Cobalt
    Publisher: Metalbulletin
    Author: Fleur Ritzema

Excerpts from the MetalBulletin Article

Why Banks, Trading Houses and Funds Have Set Their Sights on Cobalt

At a time when metals are failing to attract considerable outsider attention, investor interest in cobalt is showing early signs of a pick-up.

Banks, trading houses and hedge funds are among the entities showing a fresh interest in cobalt, even as the blue metal struggles to stage a meaningful price recovery.

Here, Metal Bulletin explores what's behind the growing interest in the minor metal and considers whether it's justified.

Among the fresh interest is that from investors, looking to secure material in the hope that prices will rise in the long-term. One US fund was understood to be seeking around 100 tonnes of metal at the recent Cobalt Development Institute (CDI) Conference in Toronto.

And seasoned minor metal traders, like Wogen, who had been largely absent from the cobalt market in recent years, are also believed to be once again eyeing up the blue metal.

Banks, including BTG Pactual, which contrary to the trend among many banks, has been aggressively expanding in commodities, are throwing their hats into the ring too. The Brazilian bank has hired two big name cobalt veterans: ENRC's Tony Southgate and ex-Glencore trader Isaac Levy, and is already understood to be offering large volumes of metal on the spot market.

The heightened interest comes despite prices lingering in the low-$13s per lb, and showing little signs of any significant rally since dropping from the low $20s in 2010.

So just what is driving the sudden interest from both traditional and non-traditional sources?

The Tesla factor...

According to research by Macquarie, Tesla alone may require up to 10,000 tpy of cobalt, which accounts for around 10% of the current global market. Others peg the figure at closer to 7,000 tonnes. On top of this demand from Tesla, heightened demand from the rest of the battery sector, largely due to raised environmental standards, as well as from the aerospace sector, has left many bullish about cobalt's future.

...One trader who attended the CDI conference last month said, "I think a few companies are looking at cobalt more closely. There's a relatively new application in the form of huge growth in batteries. Tesla, smartphones, Panasonic, for instance. A lot of analysts can see it looks like a market that's set to tighten, which was clear from the presentations at the CDI"...

To read more, Sign up for a Free Trial Metal Bulletin Membership or follow on Twitter @metalbulletin

Previous All pages Next 1 2 3 Page 4 5 6 7 8 9
Download Adobe Acrobat Reader now! Adobe Acrobat Reader or Exchange is required to view PDF documents. You may download the free document viewer (Acrobat Reader) from Adobe's web site.
Adnet Communications Inc.